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The sections in … Have a bath and wash your entire body including your teeth and nails First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list: The Three Musketeers were Athos, Porthos and … Example: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. Comma before including chicago manual of style, serial comma: do or not do. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while. Because I was late, I had to sit in the back. If the writer feels that the intended audience of this sentence do not know about the members of G8 countries, he can make it defining by not inserting the comma before "including". Corps of Engineers Assistant Secretary for Civil Works. Comma before or after including? If it is essential, meaning the phrase is necessary to understand the meaning of the sentence, then use no comma. She is an inductee in the Podcasting Hall of Fame, and the show … a. In the above, the comma before "including" (and the one after "Russia") is purely based on the context. 5. I love to pet kittens, puppies and rabbits. Don’t use a comma before the conjunction when the second clause can’t stand alone. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. For example: "Germany annexed Austria, Poland, and the Netherlands." Let’s look at … No. The proper definition of the Oxford comma is “a comma used after the penultimate item in a list of three or more items, before ‘and’ or ‘or’.” For example: For example: They should really be called "adnouns" to be consistent … Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruits, are high in vitamin C. We like to plan our vacations around three-day weekends, such as Labor Day. Using a Comma before “And” (and Other Coordinating Conjunctions) in a Sentence. A comma comes after every coordinating adjective except for the last adjective. Both the Modern Language Association and the American Psychological Association require it. If we use this second format and then make a list of people, the different people would be separated by a semi-colon (;) and not a comma. In AP style, omit the comma before the last item in a simple series, such as "Joe, John and Steve." The last two items in a list are usually connected by and. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verb are. … between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Before the fists begin to fly, let me say that, in my experience, there is a clear gulf between the two camps regarding the use of the comma before connecting in a series of three or more items.

First, it is together. If you use the word "including," it may help clarify to put a comma BEFORE it, but you still do not need a colon after it. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. By definition, if we use the word include or including before a list, we are telling the reader that the list is not exhaustive. If the examples are essential to the meaning of … All lists in APA Style should include a serial comma—the final comma before the conjunction. Comma before the final item in a list. You place a comma before "including" only when the "including" phrase is non-essential, meaning it is just added information and is not necessary to clearly understand the meaning of the sentence. The American Heritage states that include … 2. Mignon Fogarty . Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. 2. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain and Spain. (GB) I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain, and Spain. Semicolons . What the Dictionaries Tell Us. We'll show you how to use conjunctions, clauses, relative pronouns, and the proper way to use a comma after "and" with our comma cheat sheet. For instance, AP would use the "serial" comma in this sentence: "The school offers courses titled Arts and Entertainment, Geology, History and Human Development, … There are some cases where you know you should use a comma – such as when separating items in a list – but there are other times when you might be unsure whether or not a comma … The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Should I use a comma between two adjectives? Comma before including or not? anonymous; Grass hay … In that case then it follows the rules for "because" outlined above, i.e. “Be … Well, forget proper. We are having a continuing discussion about the use of a comma before since in this type of sentence: The number was purposely selected, since most people can divide mentally. More examples: Everyone survived, including the family dog. In British English, it is quite unusual to use a comma with and. In section 4.03 of APA 6, the serial comma is clearly required: “between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.” In fact, APA even requires the serial comma to be included in in-text references: (Smith, Smith, & Jones, 2016). Examples of the comma before and, so, yet and or. When there are just two items in a list, a comma … You should set this information off using a comma before and a comma after it: John went for a jog, which took half an hour, before having a long hot shower. Sometimes, you might want to include extra information within a sentence that isn’t essential to its meaning. NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. The most basic type of list appears in the running text of a sentence, with each item separated by a comma. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or.It occurs in two slightly different circumstances. Use a comma before the conjunction when the sentence halves can stand alone. The final comma before the "and" is called the serial comma. The same rules apply for titles. The Listing Comma. About the Author. The thinking is that if the preceding … Have a bath and wash your entire body, including your teeth and nails 2. If we take the first person first, the format would be like this: Joan Darcy, U.S. The third most oft-visited on this site, this page garnered close to 10,000 hits in the past thirty days. I love to pet kittens, puppies and rabbits. First, some courts have held that an item only falls within the preceding noun if it falls within one of the items in the list. Apr 06 2011 19:28:54 . There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. The only time you would place a colon after "include" … If he feels, the readers know he can set of the phrase within commas. Use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause. In this example, what's right? So the list above would run like this: If the number of page visits is a reliable indicator, this topic—using a comma before and—is on the minds of many people. Do you go to the store for “cupcakes, vanilla, and chocolate” or “cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate”? This gets more complex when an item or multiple items in your list already have commas… If it is … Mignon Fogarty is the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips and the author of seven books on language, including the New York Times bestseller "Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing." … A comma should be used after an introductory word to separate this word from the main sentence. Colons can introduce a list, while commas are used to separate items in a list. 3. Nevertheless, some courts have, in two different ways, used the list following a given including or includes to limit the meaning of the word or phrase (usually a noun or noun phrase) preceding the including or includes. Comma before and … A semicolon creates more separation between thoughts than a comma does but less than a period does. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. In the first example below, the comma after "butter" is called a serial comma or an Oxford comma.In the US, when there are more than two list items, your readers will expect a comma before the conjunction (in this case, "and") that precedes the last list item. When to Use a Comma Before 'Because' Commas with Participial Phrases. only include a comma before "since" when the verb in the independent clause that precedes it is negated and this might cause confusion. When writing a list of items for an academic paper, place a comma between each item in the list, including before the word "and." Use a comma after the conjunction when it is followed by an interruption. The Oxford comma … Just the word including is enough for introducing a list (and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list). We use commas to separate items in a series or list. The band has five members, including a drummer, two guitars, a violin, and a flute. The price for the ticket is $15.75 including sales tax. He went to London for two weeks, and he stayed at an expensive … Adjectives are words that modify a noun like "old", "red", "greasy". Nor should you put a colon there. Since most … My understanding is that if the subordinate clause follows the main clause, no comma precedes the conjunction; however, I saw the following sentence in the Q&A and am now confused.
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. The Oxford Comma This section is about commas not semicolons, but it will affect how you punctuate your lists. Here are the two most common uses of the semicolon: 1. If the specific examples aren’t essential to the accuracy of your sentence, then use a comma before such as and after your example, unless the example is at the very end of the sentence. The word and is added before the last noun, which is not followed by a comma. Writing a book, if I haven’t put you off already, is one of the most rewarding things you can do. (US) Notes. before the coordinating conjunction [usually and or or]) in a series of three or more terms.For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" (without the serial comma… For example, Each child was given a plush toy, a building block, and a rubber ball. 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Commas indicate a pause or a list in a sentence. There’s a long-running debate over whether it’s proper to include that last comma in a list. A comma comes after each noun in a list. The semicolon looks like a comma with a period above it, and this can be a good way to remember what it does. To help separate items in a list, when some of those items already contain commas. The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. In this case you do need a comma. 1. 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